Осенние стихи (Большая поэзия для маленьких детей) (Russian Edition)
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Similarly intertwined in his work were the nostalgia of Eastern European Jewish culture, a Russian and revolutionary longing, and Russian toska. It can be found in two passages of the Shabbat treatise 39a and 66b , where it is used in different situations to refer to the longing of a father for his son and that of a son for his father.
The primordial wailing of a nature devoid of any hope or consolation thus takes on the form of a conscious, fully rounded human feeling. Benkshaft: The Yiddish Culture of Nostalgia Modern literary culture in Yiddish developed with incredible speed in the second half of the nineteenth century and, over the course of just a few years, evolved from a tradition featuring interesting, but marginal works into one of the leading literary phenomena in Europe. Because of the circumstances in which it developed, modern Yiddish literature seems to be pervaded by nostalgia.
The Central and Eastern European Jewish hamlet, cast as a close-knit community where every life has its own place and meaning and enjoys an uninterrupted vital bond with tradition, not only compris- es one of the essential topoi in the work of the founding fathers of modern Yid- dish literature, but also figures pervasively in the reception and evaluation of this literature. A feel- ing of nostalgia coupled with the same basic theme, i.
In the early twentieth century, Yiddish cultural benkshaft finds expression in two different tendencies, both shaped by external events as well as by chang- es occurring within Jewish society in Central Eastern Europe. In just one gen- eration, traditional Jewish culture detached itself from the world of its fathers, a process that in the surrounding society had unfolded quite differently and over the course of several decades. At the same time, a powerful Jewish longing for acculturation and integration into that surrounding external world met increas- ingly with an impenetrable wall of ethnic nationalism and anti-Semitism, senti- ments which were soon to reach their international apotheosis.
It was almost a foregone conclusion that the Bolshevik revolution — which promoted internationalism and equality — would represent the hopes of the Jewish people, at least until its openly totalitarian shift at the end of the s. It was also fairly predictable that among individuals whose childhoods were still deeply rooted in Jewish tradi- tion, such hopes would assume forms of messianism, one of the most original and problematically distinguishing elements of Jewish thought.
As summa- rized by rabbi Arthur Green , The claim has often been made that modern Jews who lost their faith in God did not as easily lose their faith in messianic redemption. The various movements for social progress that have attracted so many Jews, including Socialism and Com- munism, may be seen as forms of secular messianism. These two currents are intertwined, however, 4 A variety of nostalgia for the shtetl and a re-evaluation of its culture and existential marginality is shared today by anti-nationalist intellectuals and those highly critical of Israel as a state project, such as Daniel Boyarin in the United States and Moni Ovadia in Italy.
Scholem For this information, I am grateful to Silvano Facioni. Later came the yeshive in Minsk, whose en- lightened headmaster allowed the students to study Hebrew grammar, a lay sub- ject and one that was disliked8. During the Revolution, Leivick joined the Bund, the supranation- al and Yiddishist Jewish socialist party, which had been founded in Vilna in Although he had already made his debut as a promising author in He- brew, once he joined the revolution, Leivick decided to abandon the sacred idiom and shift to Yiddish, the language of the deprived masses — and it was in Yiddish literature that he later made his mark as one of its greatest representa- tives.
In , Leivick was suspected of subversive activity and arrested by the tsarist police; during the trial — an episode mentioned by B. Harshav and B. Harshav and often quoted in the literature — Leivick refused 6 Also transliterated as Leyvik. I am a member of the Jewish revolutionary Party, the Bund, and I will do everything in my power to overthrow the tsarist autocracy, its bloody henchmen, and you as well Ivi: Leivick was sentenced to four years of forced labor and permanent exile in Siberia.
In an isolated cell in the Minsk prison tower, Leivick wrote his first dra- matic poem, Di keytn fun Meshiakh The Chains of the Messiah , which was published only in Together with The Golem and Di geule komedie The Comedy of Redemption, , The Chains of the Messiah completes a triad of works on the idea of Messianism and these three works were published as such in Israel in under the title Hezyoney Geulah, Visions of Redemption.
Goldsmith, In this context, the poet himself — and others as well — can come forward as a messianic figure. It was in this same period that a picture was taken of Leivick dressed in traditional Russian garb with chains around his waist and ankles: very rarely, if ever, has an iconographic representation better illustrated the inner world of an artist than in that picture.
The final destination was a hamlet called Vitim, where the poet was supposed to spend the rest of his life. Named after a tributary of the Lena river, this village boasted an average tem- perature in winter of minus thirty-five degrees Celsius and lay at a distance of six thousand kilometers from Minsk. And yet, thanks to the money that some comrades who had earlier emigrated to America daringly managed to send, Leivick accomplished the almost unthinkable and escaped from Siberia.
He did this by purchasing a horse and cart, which he drove to a railway station, travel- ing across Russia and Germany, and eventually to the United States, where he landed in the summer of Like many intellectuals of his time, Leivick faced great professional and personal difficulties in the States; these are described in some of his most pop- ular plays, such as Shmates Rags from or Shop from It was a symbolic landscape, but also the setting of painful and tangible personal experiences, as described in his famous poem Oyfn di vegn Sibirer On the Road to Siberia from Oyfn di vegn Sibirer Emets nokh itster gefinen a klepl, a shtrikl Fun mayne a tserisenem shukh.
A rimenem pas, fun a leymenem krigl a shtikl. A bleter fun heylikn bukh. Oyfn di taykhn Sibirer Ken emets nokh itster gefinen a tseykhn a shpendl Fun mains a dertrunkenem plit; In vald — a farblutikt-fartriktn bendl, In shney — ayngefroyrene trit Leivick 9. In particular, for Leivick and for most of his readers, Jewish messian- ism was closely intertwined with Russian tradition.
Leivick was linked to more recent Russian culture as well. Der goylem. Dramatishe poeme in akht bilder The Golem. There is abundant scholarly literature on the legend of the Golem; in addition to the books included in the Bibliography, see, for example, Idel Zylberzwejg His sufferings in this period were also exacerbated by tuberculosis, which obliged him to undergo long periods of hospitalization and consequent isolation from the outside world.
After the Shoah, Leivick was the first among Yiddish poets and writers in the United States to give voice to the widespread sense of disorientation and feeling of guilt for the catastrophe that many of his writings — including The Golem — seemed to have disturbingly foreshadowed. Schwarz Leivick died in New York in He had spent the last four years of his life paralyzed and unable to speak, visited constantly by writers and friends. He was compared to the starets Zosima of The Brothers Karamazov in both his own outlook and in the devotion that others demonstrated to him Harshav, Harshav Nahshon , particularly pp.
When you pass our Church you have to take our hat off! You dirty Jew! The lesson that day was on the binding of Isaac and when Leivick heard Abraham described as lifting the knife, he burst into hysteri- cal tears. Though the teacher tried to comfort Leivick — it was just a test, Isaac was not slaughtered!
Returning home on that same day, young Leivick walked past the estate of Count Yassevitch13, who, everyone knew, had a mad son that he kept locked up. Great terri- fying eyes. The man himself — a giant, the black hair of his head and face dishev- eled, wild. It was a game, Leivick recalled, invented to entertain the prisoner, to show him that he wanted to cheer him up. Russian nineteenth-century novels often tell of pranks played on village idiots and greeted with general hilarity, but in this case, Leivick inverts the expected prank to punish himself.
In the first episode, the sudden and unjustified act of anti-Semitic 13 Also spelled Jasiewicz. I have been unable to find any information confirming the historical existence of the Count, although this surname was very common in that region. Leivick thus presents himself as a messianic figure, but not in the image of a triumphant Messiah, the son of David, but according to another Talmudic model provided by Jewish tradition, i.
The Talmud states that the Messiah is a beggar waiting at the gates of Rome. And how can one recognize him? While the other lepers change their bandages all at once, the Messiah does so one bandage at a time, so as not to be late cf. Facioni ff. The first of the eight scenes into which The Golem is divided, entitled Clay, takes place at night just outside Prague and presents an argument between the rabbi and the shadow of the Golem that he is about to remove from the darkness. His grave in the Jewish cemetery of Prague, which has remained untouched to this day, is often visited.
Legend holds that he was the cre- ator of the Golem. The shadow then disappears, after one last unheeded prayer, his apparition soon replaced by the sinister one of the Priest, whose name is Polish — Tadeush Ta- deusz — and who hisses to the rabbi: Nor ze, funvanem kumen dos tsu dir azoyne oygn? Retsikhe shpritst fun zey un shvartse gvure, Vi kumt retsikhe tsu a rov?
The cynical Tadeush is certainly right when he sees retshikhe, slaughter, in the eyes of the rabbi, when he recognizes him as an alter ego of the Golem. The Golem, half man and half puppet, endowed with supernatural strength but ready to obey every request of his creator, will be the savior of the helpless Jews. He will be the one to stain his hands with blood in obedience to a higher will; thus it has 15 Quotations in this article from the original Yiddish text of The Golem are taken from Leivick , while the English translations found largely in the notes are from Leivick In the second scene, entitled Walls, the Golem is no longer a shadow, but a person.
He has a name, Yosl, Joseph, that reminds us of his messianic destiny and a rough-hewn appearance: he is huge and strong, with black hair, a black beard, a stupid smile, and childlike eyes. At first, the Golem can feel only the most primordial, violent feelings: fear and rage. The rabbi seems both disap- pointed and fascinated by his creature. He teaches him to bend his head if he has to walk through a very low door, to move objects instead of sweeping them away; he teaches him that the sunset is not a fire that will soon devour every- thing.
His rage explodes in an expressionistic outburst, his desperation at finding himself in a world so incomprehensible and threatening recalling scenes in works by other contemporary authors about the tragedy of the First World War: Es hoybt zikh epes inveynik in mir un vergt, Un klapt, a klinkerey in beyde oyern, Un far di oygn — royt un grin… Un mayne fis zey hoybn zikh, zey viln geyn, Un mayne hent ot gibn zey a khap dikh farn halz Un trogn zikh avek mit dir In the following scene, Through Darkness, the distance between the Golem and the community that he is supposed to protect continues to grow.
When the biblical God had called Abraham, the patriarch had answered with the single word: Hinneni, Here I am, and it is from this absolute readiness that Jewish sa- cred history was born. Un ale nehmen lakhn, iberkrimen: do bin ikh… 51 In the meantime, events come to a head. Gor a sakh, a sakh Nor gebn konen mir zey gornisht, gornisht, hert mir? Un epes konen mir — o, io, mir konen, reb Basevi, mir viln ober nit.
Mir viln nit… mir hobn Tsu alts un alemen fun gor der velt Nor tsugerirt zikh mit eyn shpits fun finger, Gor fun der zeyt a hoykh geton mit unzer otem, Un alts un ale fun der gantser velt Vet trogn shoyn oyf eybik unzer finger, Un shturems, virblendike shturems veln oysbrekhn Fun unzer leykhtn oysgehoykhtn otem… The fourth scene, Beggars, is set among the poor who are quartered in the Fifth Tower, a sort of timeless non-place belonging to noone, perhaps a refer- ence to the Minsk Tower where Leivick himself had been imprisoned. According to a well-known prophecy, the Messiah will come when the world is either completely good or when it is completely evil.
In either case, mankind will have to be ready to welcome him and to accept change. In the scene Unbidden, Prophet Elias and the Messiah are two beggars, one old and one young, both with sore hands and feet and waiting for dawn at the out- skirts of Prague. As noted above, however, no redeemer may come without having been called for.
The time is not yet ripe; the awaited Messiah can only be the Last One, who marks the end of time. It is the Maharal himself who sends the two miserable beggars away. In scene six, Revelations, the Golem wakes up in the Fifth Tower, where the Maharal had imprisoned him together with beggars and victims of the pogroms. In the penultimate scene, In the Cave, the plot draws to a close. In the dark tunnels of the Fifth Tower that connect cathedral with synagogue, Tadeush and a monk carefully carry sealed bottles containing the blood of the child they have killed.
Blood is the key word in the last pages of the poem, the blood which the Golem smells from afar. Only he will be able to prevent the final slaughter, but the means by which he can do so are the same as those used by Tadeush and his fellows. The Golem tries to brace up, repeating the ter- rible formula, but he is continually tormented by nightmares and phantoms he cannot explain. Deserted by the Maharal and lost in the airless underground tunnels, he finds the bottles with the blood and probably intends to murder Tadeush and his assistant.
O, rebe mayner! The rabbi has not visited him for eight days. And yet, the Rabbi would still like the Golem to learn to live among other Jews, to relish the sound of their prayers. Moreover, the violence that the Rabbi himself has triggered within his creature — indeed, the violence for which the Rabbi created him — cannot be restrained. The result is a grotesque tragedy: the Golem does join the group of people praying at the synagogue, but only in order to slaughter them — and it is only then that the Maharal realizes the destruc- tive power he has released: Iz dos a shtraf far unzer freyd, Reboyne oylem?
Iz doz dayn shtraf far veln rateven zikh? Ti hostu nisht baviligt? Mayn zind far veln opnemen baym faynt dos zeynike; Der faynt hot oyfgemant Ikh hob gevolt farmaydn blut un blut fargosn Dvorel runs in, terrified. The Golem reaches out to her, thinking she has come to be with him. Evening falls. The Maharal orders the faithful to resume the song that marks the beginning of the Shabbat.
Here again, Leivick highlights the problem of violence being completely alien to Jewish identity. The devising of utopias and conjuring up of complex plans for salvation is pointless, Leivick argues. While Leivick knew that even the greatly yearned for coming of the Mes- siah would change nothing in the human condition, he also held that continuing to wait for and to believe in his arrival was necessary. Bertolone 32 ff. While Yiddish, to which Leivick chose to attach his destiny, is generally associated — at least in its secular version — with the simul- taneous acknowledgement and acceptance of dispersion and of exile, Yiddish language and culture also participated, albeit in often conflicting and troubled ways, in the building of the new country.
These two visions culminated after his death, as had often happened in his life, in a symbolic event, namely the creation in Tel Aviv in of the House of Lei- vick, a cultural center and museum, as well as the Israeli seat of the association of Yiddish writers and journalists This institution is one of very few in the state of Israel where the sounds of Hebrew and Yiddish, together with the multiple nostalgias of the Hebrew world, coexist in relative harmony — and both worlds, significantly, are contained in its name: Bet Leyvik, Leyviks Hoys. Translated by Cecilia Pozzi and Sara Dickinson 27 At the same time, this guttural and poetic idiom of a disinherited and homeless people, a language whose very structure would seem to symbolize exile, necessarily sug- gested paradox and a sort of bizarre defeatism.
Indeed, in the early years of the Israeli state, Ben Gurion led an aggressive campaign against Yiddish culture, which he identi- fied with the humiliation and powerlessness of the Diaspora. Unless otherwise noted, subsequent volume and page numbers in this chapter for citations of Vysockij refer to this edition. Lotman, Uspenskij 61; Boym Heroic gestures simultaneously constitute a supreme form of human ex- perience for Vysockij and serve as the object of nostalgia — and it is in this light that they appear in his most well-known musical-poetic cycles. Harsh expanses of steppe and polar ice, underground mines, and mountain peaks are among the spaces selected by Vysockij to elaborate his conception of heroism.
When locat- ing heroism in other eras, Vysockij often chooses to contemplate the heroic feat in the context of war. Particular attention will be devoted in this article to the origins of this choice as well as to the expression of heroism found in his songs about the men who fought in World War II. The blend of a profoundly personal nostalgia for the heroic feat with widely shared public sentiments enabled both Vysockij and his audience to transcend the quotidian reality of daily Soviet life.
In these lyrics, we can begin to intuit a link between heroism and the ethical nature of true friendship the only admissible kind found elsewhere in Vysockij as well6. Nikolaj Rerix, who in characterized podvig as a concept that is specifically Rus- sian and thus untranslatable into other languages, highlighted the notion of moral choice found at its core: Heroism accompanied by fanfare is not capable of conveying the immortal, complete, and all-encompassing idea contained in the Russian word podvig [ Those who choose to take on the heavy burden of the podvig bear it voluntarily Rerix His impetu- ous temperament, his romantic sense of honor, and his irrepressible surges of creativity clashed constantly and irremediably with the paralysis that reigned in Soviet society during that era.
In particular, Vysockij suffered from the stifling conformity that reigned in the official artistic institutions and from the hostil- ity of the politico-cultural bureaucracy, that, while never overt, was insidious, systematic, and encountered by him daily8. I: His colleague, however, who up until that moment also been his friend, obeys a mistaken instinct for survival and, in a display of irrationality and irresponsibility, succumbs to the urge to flee.
In role lyrics, a lyrical procedure is used to appropriate epic material: the author gives voice to characters that are clearly distinct from himself. Regret for the Time of Heroes 81 Though his coworker fails the test of friendship, the heroic protagonist re- mains generously disposed towards him. Both songs are set in dramatically rendered environments that sharply contrast with one another and with daily life: one takes place in the hellish darkness of a suffocating coal mine in the burning bowels of the earth, the other in the frigid whiteness of the snow-covered steppe, symbolic of both immaculate purity and deadly austerity.
Such homecom- ing is tolerable only because it is necessary in order to subsequently embark upon yet another path of ascent. Not one step back! While the two brief and apparently random quatrains that Volodja intones lack any explicit connection with mountain heroism, they can be linked to his general vision of mountaineering. The quest for such opportunities is con- stant in his work, perhaps because it is through the demonstration of heroism, in his view, that one earns the right to be called a human being. Hero- ism constitutes an ongoing process that, despite moments of triumph, is imbued with uneasiness and longing.
Vysockij himself appears to have been driven by a troubled restlessness or anxiety in his ceaseless desire to uncover heroes. He searches for heroes everywhere, ranging widely through space and time to do so. The feats of such personages offer at least temporary respite from the con- tinued threat of quotidian stagnation, their repeated acts of heroism constituting a bulwark against the encroachment of the mundane as well as the vital reasser- tion of full human dignity. As noted, the quest for heroism takes Vysockij to ex- treme geographical contexts: mountain peaks, the wintry steppe, the Far North.
His search also leads him to the past and, particularly, to the era of World War II and to the heroism of the soldier. He began to write war songs in the first half of the s25, when no theme in Soviet culture was more widespread than that of the Second Great Patriotic War. Ubiquitous in the figurative arts and classical music, the War was also featured in hundreds and hundreds of novels, stories, plays, poems, lyrics, songs, historical essays, journalistic reportage, war diaries, and films, both doc- umentary and non-.
Regret for the Time of Heroes 85 the conflict with Napoleon that broke out in , clearly underlined historical continuity with the tsarist epoch. Nonetheless, while he does mourn a profound lack of heroism in the dismal, gray, and dispiriting life that surrounds him, Vysockij does not seek return to the past. Bar- skova A lack of interest in such themes allows him to avoid the heavy finality of either tragic or rhetorical emphasis, and to conclude his songs with the acknowl- edgement of a permanent, ongoing state or condition of toska.
At the end of the day, artistic pro- duction seems to have allowed Vysockij to simultaneously sublimate and come to terms with a sense of loss through the act of commemorating it. It is also true that since his songs contain no clearly expressed desire for any actual restoration of the past, they generate in listeners a variety of nostalgia that is linked less to properly historical memory than to remembrance shot through with an emotional and even deeply personal nostalgia.
Since the struggle for survival that characterized the War era did not lend itself well to the discussion of ideological fine points, rehabilitated s pa- triotism was easily reconciled with the official image of the USSR as different nationalities united to defend the native land against medieval Nazi barbarity. Polevoj In the initial months of the war, I had to take him, as a three-year-old, with me to work. Sometimes he would sleep right there on the tables.
When the air-raid sirens went off, we went down into the bomb shelter. It was always crowded, very hot and stuffy. And did he whine? Not once! Volodja came up to the loft several times, too, with his little toy bucket Safonov With the adjective bylinnye, referring to the Russian folk epic, Vysockij blends historical reality with folkloric reminiscence.
The age-old concept of the war trophy requires little ulterior explanation. With the passage of time, the term progressively moved towards the criminal world, becoming a slang term for institutions of detention cf. Krylov-Kulagin Indeed, most of the protagonists in his war songs are individuals or well-defined groups.
Nonetheless, Ballad on Combat contains no trace of any disenchantment or bitterness towards youthful romantic idealism. Immediately after the war, Volodja lived with his father and stepmother on a Soviet military base in Eberswalde, East Germany for almost three years from the end of to August He loved retelling to his friends what he had been reading. He had an excellent memory. He could memorize a poem after reading it only once [ In Germany and later in Moscow my friends would come to see us. You can imagine what men who had served together on the front lines would talk about when they got together.
I pay tribute to this era with my songs. Regret for the Time of Heroes 91 Red Banners. Nonetheless, for all their plausibility, these songs seem to be set both in World War II, and also — simultaneously — in a metahistorical or mythologically prototypical dimension. This twentieth anniversary of the victory was celebrated with under- standable pride by the large majority of Soviet citizens, to whom the War had caused indescribable suffering and hardship. The Communist Party exploited the event to launch a major campaign of self-celebration, mobilizing expo- nents of the creative intelligentsia.
Painters, sculptors, prose writers, poets, playwrights, theatre and film directors each responded to the call on the basis of their talents if they had any and character, be it a tendency towards servil- ity or the affirmation of courage and a sense of dignity. Vysockij himself was involved during this period with two important projects that he would never have occasion to regret and that marked a significant step in his artistic evolu- tion.
Danelija that met with great success. He committed suicide in Regret for the Time of Heroes 93 the heroic to the lyrical I: 69 He was a truly extraordinary man, who really valued bard music. And this had a surprising effect, because, for ex- ample, we received a letter from a woman who had lost her memory when two of her sons were hanged right in front of her. She watched this movie in the hospital and she wrote us a letter telling us that she had suddenly remembered where that had happened to her children.
She wrote both to Bernes and to the studio in Minsk. Vysockij, like Bernes, regularly received a number of letters from veterans who thought they had rec- ognized themselves in the protagonist of this or that song, a fact that he often mentioned with pride during his concerts. Here director Jurij Lju- bimov used an approach that would become one of his trademarks, namely pre- senting the bare poetic text without any set.
As was the case with all Taganka productions, restrictions imposed by the censorship meant protracted struggles, lengthy negotiations, and multiple post- ponements. In point of fact, the song Mass graves was itself cut before the drama opened in November , although Vysockij had the honor of singing another of his songs on stage.
More- over, when he made a brief video in May in order to introduce himself to Warren Beattie, who was then casting the movie Reds, Vysockij began by reciting in Russian some poems from The Fallen written by wartime poet Semen Gudzenko , rather than a selection from his own wide repertoire. Unlike the prohibited theme of the illegal underground that Vysockij had explored in previous work — and that had no official outlet — the war theme was publicly approved and even officially embraced; his own approach to the War, however, remained sui generis.
An initial answer to this question was given by Vysockij himself in an explanation of his constant references to war: [ And I often find them in those times. It seems to me that there were simply more of them then, that the situations in which they found themselves were more ex- treme. The motives for courageous acts on the battlefield are quite specific and differ from those that inspire, for instance, climbers. The sentiment is so natural and deeply-rooted, in other words, that no explicit mention of it is neces- sary. Indeed, Vysockij makes no use of patriotic rhetoric in his entire oeuvre — a fact essential to understanding his poetics.
The soldierly sense of duty that Vysockij describes does not appear to be trig- gered by conditioned reflex since the men do reflect upon it , nonetheless, this sentiment ultimately prevails over their other motives for action and, most nota- bly, over an instinct for self-preservation. Their participation in the war results situations have been taken from those days [of war], but all of it could very well happen here, too, even now.
This is how I regard them: as contemporary songs written by a person living today. Regret for the Time of Heroes 97 from various pressing events, but it is mainly the product of individual choice. In- deed, Vysockij rarely deprives his characters of the chance to choose or, at least, to challenge their fate even in the most dramatic contexts.
Nonetheless, it is not the order from above, but his own sense of personal responsibility in pursuit of the common good that prevents him and his companions from giving in to hatred or instinc- tive emotion. Despite a few variations in poetic tone, the war cycle is a coherent group of songs persistently laced with the themes of friendship, danger, courage, fear, physical exertion, life, and death.
Certainly, such an approach itself might be interpreted as adding a touch of aesthetic and psychological authenticity to the subject, insofar as those who were actually involved in the War, whether as participants, witnesses or victims, were often quite unwilling to offer up the grisly details, preferring to recollect the tragedy in all its emotional complexity as a world in and of itself. While not all of the persons described perform heroic feats, they do all overcome their fears and transcend the limitations imposed by an egotistical sense of self-preservation in order to create an epic together.
Of all the types of violence to which he has been subjected, he is particularly haunted by the ethnic variety perpetrated among the deported peoples: 53 Mass deportation was the merciless Soviet response to the rebellion of vari- ous peoples upon the occasion of the Soviet invasion of Germany in February More than one third of the deportees died during the journey or from hardships suffered in the first years of exile, while the survivors were forbidden to leave their place of destination.
The same fate also befell the Crimean Tatars, similarly accused of col- laboration with the Nazis and rounded up by the Red Army in May for deportation to Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. No one could move, everyone sat in silence. And suddenly someone burst into tears, another began to cry, a third. He thus contextualized his own personal and familial affairs in the greater historical narrative that saw the Jews of the tsarist Empire adhere en masse to the progressive and universalist ideology of the Revolution inimical as it was to nationalism and antisemitism , as Yuri Slezkine brilliantly demonstrates.
There is no lasting escape from existence: one must descend from the peak to continue the process of ascending and descending, of putting oneself to the test, a process from which even the gods are not exempt. Summing up, Vysockian toska is an existential melancholy that is incom- mensurate with the rudimentary mechanisms of restorative nostalgia: he did not idealize the past and even less so the past used for tendentious purposes.
Vysockij at- tempted to overcome the anxiety produced in him by this divide through artistic expression and experience. Singing offered him a means of transcendence and it is not mere coincidence that Vysockij set himself a furious pace in work and as a result in life cf. Buvina, Curletto His frenetic attempts to achieve an exalted state yet again illustrate an attitude that deeply worried those close to Vysockij and was the primary cause of his premature death.
It is quite probable that he more or less consciously considered artistic creation to be his own individual podvig, a heroic feat whose realization required a vzlet or act of taking flight that could not, alas, continue uninterrupted. His quest to soar con- stantly above daily life was ultimately impossible to reconcile with the physical limitations of human existence.
Dictionary of Spoken Russian/English-Russian
Vysockij was not content with artistic creativity that was restricted to an intimate or personal scale — the result of factors both external and internal, in- cluding his character, his theatrical training, and a certainty that he would not be published or officially recorded in Soviet Russia. Vysockij was driven to share his art, and the more he immersed himself in others, the more successful he felt it to be.
Writing verses was only the first step in this heroic creative process: the artistic feat could only be fully realized in the context of public sharing, in the establishment of consonance between his own feelings and those of others. Vysockij himself affirmed that his songs assumed semi- definite shape only after having passed muster with his audience: they were measured first by the 61 Three of these songs were performed personally by Vysockij himself.
This re- corded Alice, directed by Oleg Gerasimov, was first released in as a double album and, after its great success, reissued almost every year until the early nineties; an MP3 version became available in Will you chicken out at once? Or will you boldly leap? Perhaps he felt that the heroic feat of performing a song could not be repeated mechanically and that each realization required new effort and new adjustments. Some clarification of this apparent paradox is suggested by Boym : diverse representations of the Russian national character [ The border between bytie and byt seems to parallel the mythical border between Russia and the West.
This is exactly what Vysockij does and it explains his success: he transforms national spirit into true art without sacrificing its national connotations. And by voicing nostalgia for the War and, more generally, for heroic contexts located in other spatial and temporal worlds, Vysockij allowed his public to both accept daily life and to understand it as preparatory to the heroic feat.
Melancholic Humor, Skepticism and Reflective Nostalgia. Svetlana Boym What is freedom? It was delicious and there was a lot of it, but we smelled of onions and went to take a shower. In the bathroom I felt dizzy from fatigue. I fell on the cement floor, hit my head and fainted. She dried me with a towel, helped me into my clothes, and called the others who took me to my room: there were cottages where we stayed. I was fortunate that her father was a doctor, staying with her.
He examined me — there was a bruise on my head. He told me to stay in bed a whole week, and they had the delicious gefilte fish. They liked it, and I gained the title of an excellent cook. In , we received a four-bedroom apartment with all comforts for me, my husband, my son, and my parents. She died that same year. We buried her in the Jewish cemetery without following the Jewish ritual. After my mother died, I composed a concert for violin and orchestra and dedicated it to her memory. Lyova finished school in and entered the music history department of the Conservatory in Kishinev.
After finishing his first year he decided to go to Moscow Conservatory. It was hard, but he managed. At that time I had to have training in Moscow for six months. We both stayed in the hostel of the Conservatory on Malaya Gruzinskaya Street. I had a room for myself, of course, and Lyova shared his room with two guys from Central Asia. They are all excellent cooks, and the guys taught Lyova to cook. He makes such delicious plov dishes! After he graduated from the Conservatory Lyova was taken to the army. He served in the music band of the Moscow regiment.
He sang in the choir. After the army he married his former co-student Mila Gordiychuk, a Ukrainian girl. Mila and her mother lived in a one-bedroom apartment in Moscow. Her father had left them a long time ago. I bought many pink roses that I kept in the bathroom of the hotel room where my husband and I were staying. After the wedding, Lyova and Mila moved to Kishinev. Lyova went to teach in a music school. We rented an apartment for them.
In my granddaughter, Yulia was born. I missed them a lot and traveled to Moscow whenever I had the chance. Oleg Melnik, chief ballet master of the Kishinev Opera and Ballet Theater, was going to stage this ballet, but when the score was ready, he happened to be chief ballet master in Samarkand [today Uzbekistan], he somehow had problems with the administration of the Kishinev Theater.
Some time later Melnik sent me an invitation to the first night. I went there two days before the performance. Since there was no direct flight to Samarkand, I had to take the flight Kishinev-Tashkent with stopovers in Tbilisi [today Georgia] and Ashgabat [today Turkmenistan]. In Tashkent I was to take another plane to Samarkand. From the airport I rushed to the theater. I went to the dress rehearsal. Then I went to wash and change in the hotel and rushed back to the theater. The first night was successful. I took a tape of the performance and brochures and went back to Kishinev.
I showed these to the director of our Opera theater and he got very interested. He started preparations for the performance. We were used to the Soviet way of life. As for our spiritual life, Yefim or I never felt any suppression. My husband collected classical literature. We went to all the performances in the Opera Theater, and symphonic concerts. We only went there when producers whom we knew invited us to the first nights.
My husband and I lived for 52 years together, longer than a golden jubilee. I married for love, we lived in harmony and we were united by profession. Yefim was a smart and wise man, talented in his field, and he cared about my success. Yefim taught in the music school for many years and later worked in the Philharmonic. He lectured on the history of Moldovan music in the Kishinev College of Arts. He specialized in Moldovan music, wrote many articles for the press, presented regular radio programs in Moldovan that he knew well.
He had a strong will and had a goal to polish the Moldovan language to perfection. He understood that this was the only way for him to describe the cultural life of Moldova in every detail. My husband and I never cared about everyday comforts: we were more interested in spiritual life. It was rather difficult at that time. The owner of the furniture store, whose son, a pianist, entered the Moscow Conservatory with our son Lyova, helped us to get it. He made arrangements for me to buy this set of furniture without having to wait in line. I bought another carpet for my living room before the New Year , just because the old one got very shabby.
I received a bonus of one thousand rubles from the Conservatory. And I decided: now or never. When Gorbachev  came to power and perestroika  began, for me it was a possibility to give freedom to my thoughts and turn degrees to Jewish life. Life was difficult: the war, evacuation, and the Soviet reality kept me within certain frames. As soon as I felt free for expressing myself, I felt like writing music for my own people.
Music is always in the genes. My husband helped me with it. Unfortunately, the beginning of perestroika was marked by a tragic event in my life. My father died in a car accident in He outlived my mother by 15 years. It was hard, but I managed. Now they are together under a black marble gravestone where their names are inscribed, a candle and a violin are engraved.
This was the first work where I used Jewish motives and tunes. There was Irina Mishura, a wonderful vocalist. She is non-Jewish, but her husband is a Jew of Kishinev. She wonderfully performed the works by Bitkin, a Jewish composer. When I heard her, I felt like writing something for the vocals. I had a collection of poems by Ovsey Dreez [Dreez, Ovsey : Soviet Jewish poet, author of a collection of lyrical poems, and fairy-tales and poems for children] in Yiddish, which my former student gave me. I wrote a vocal cycle based on his poems.
Therefore, I began to write Jewish music in vocal cycles, instrumental music, music for a quartet and an orchestra. I have a number of pieces of Jewish music that I composed. The Bureau was closed and Lyova was jobless for almost three years. By that time it was my turn in the line to buy a car. Later, he worked as a director of the collection fund of musical instruments, and now he works in the Glinka  State Central Museum of Musical Culture in Moscow.
His wife Mila works for a real estate company. She is the breadwinner of the family. She took a two-year course of language studies and now she is a tour guide. For me perestroika was a good thing, but there were also negative features. When the USSR broke up, all creative relations between the former republics fell apart.
As for me, this made my creative life poor, though I continued to work at the Conservatory. Regretfully, our television adds to the negative side of it showing vulgar unprofessional clips.
There is no serious symphonic music on the screens since nobody pays for it. But now they broadcast some jazz fragments. My husband left a big collection of classical music.
My son gave me a nice music system, and I listen to music. I listen to what I like. This is all I have. In , I traveled to Israel with a delegation of Moldovan musicians at the invitation of the Kishinev composer Kopytman, who was one of the first to move there. He had an important position in the Rubin Musical Academy in Jerusalem, and Maria Bieshu [Moldovan singer lyrical-dramatic soprano soloist of the Kishinev Theater of Opera and Ballet, laureate of international contests]. We spent a week there and stayed in a hotel. This was a busy week: concerts, meetings and many tours across Israel.
We visited the Wailing Wall, and I left a note there, of course. This was like a fairy-tale! Israel is a wonderful and beautiful country. I sensed its amazing aura and I felt like traveling many decades back, I felt an inner connection with the history of my people. I was very impressed by this tour. I visited Israel again in at the invitation of Izolda, the daughter of Kishinev conductor Boris Milyutin. She lives in Bat Yam near Tel Aviv. Life in Israel is progressing. My husband and I witnessed the rebirth of the Jewish life in Kishinev seven years ago .
Yefim began to collect material about the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. He had cancer and hurried with his work. My husband was chief editor of this collection. Yefim died in April On the day of his funeral I saw how much he was loved in Kishinev: by Jews and Moldovans alike. Many people came to pay their respects to him. Employees of Hesed  Yehuda, our charity center, helped me to make all necessary arrangements.
I invited a rabbi and he recited the Kiddush. I have a few students. At the invitation of Joint I teach talented Jewish children composition. This was the beginning of the so-called Great Patriotic War. The German blitzkrieg, known as Operation Barbarossa, nearly succeeded in breaking the Soviet Union in the months that followed. Caught unprepared, the Soviet forces lost whole armies and vast quantities of equipment to the German onslaught in the first weeks of the war.
The war ended for the Soviet Union on 9th May Bessarabia was part of Russia until the Revolution of In it declared itself an independent republic, and later it united with Romania. The Treaty of Paris recognized the union but the Soviet Union never accepted this. The two provinces had almost 4 million inhabitants, mostly Romanians.
Today it is part of Moldova. Cuza, one of the most fervent fascist leaders in Romania, who was known for his ruthless chauvinism and anti-Semitism. Romania withdrew its troops and administration in the same month and between 28th June and 3rd July, the Soviets occupied the region. After its occupation Transnistria became a place for deported Romanian Jews. Systematic deportations began in September In the course of the next two months, all surviving Jews of Bessarabia and Bukovina and a small part of the Jewish population of Old Romania were dispatched across the Dniester.
This first wave of deportations reached almost , by mid-November when it was halted by Ion Antonescu, the Romanian dictator, upon intervention of the Council of Romanian Jewish Communities. Deportations resumed at the beginning of the summer of , affecting close to 5, Jews. A third series of deportations from Old Romania took place in July , affecting Jews who had evaded forced labor decrees, as well as their families, communist sympathizers and Bessarabian Jews who had been in Old Romania and Transylvania during the Soviet occupation.
Most of the Jews deported to camps in Transnistria died between because of horrible living conditions, diseases and lack of food. The task of the Komsomol was to spread of the ideas of communism and involve the worker and peasant youth in building the Soviet Union. The Komsomol also aimed at giving a communist upbringing by involving the worker youth in the political struggle, supplemented by theoretical education. The Komsomol was more popular than the Communist Party because with its aim of education people could accept uninitiated young proletarians, whereas party members had to have at least a minimal political qualification.
It was part of the policy of the state. They were all state schools and were all supposed to be identical. Jews, was initiated in articles in the central organs of the Communist Party in The campaign was directed primarily at the Jewish intelligentsia and it was the first public attack on Soviet Jews as Jews. They were executed secretly in Jews were removed from their positions, and rumors of an imminent mass deportation of Jews to the eastern part of the USSR began to spread.
In January , the Soviet press reported that nine doctors, six of whom were Jewish, had been arrested and confessed their guilt. As Stalin died in March , the trial never took place. The official paper of the Party, the Pravda, later announced that the charges against the doctors were false and their confessions obtained by torture. In his secret speech at the Twentieth Party Congress in Khrushchev stated that Stalin wanted to use the Plot to purge the top Soviet leadership. Influenced by an effective propaganda campaign, and starvation in the east, 41, Soviet Jews relocated to the area between the late s and early s.
But, by 28, of them had fled the regions harsh conditions, There were Jewish schools and synagogues up until the s, when there was a resurgence of religious repression after World War II. The Soviet government wanted the forced deportation of all Jews to Birobidzhan to be completed by the middle of the s. But in Stalin died and the deportation was cancelled.
Minister of Internal Affairs, In , during the 20th Party Congress, Khrushchev took an unprecedented step and denounced Stalin and his methods. He was deposed as premier and party head in October After finishing this assignment young people were allowed to get employment at their discretion in any town or organization. Gorbachev joined the Communist Party in and gradually moved up in the party hierarchy. In he joined the politburo, and in he was appointed general secretary of the party. In he embarked on a comprehensive program of political, economic, and social liberalization under the slogans of glasnost openness and perestroika restructuring.
The government released political prisoners, allowed increased emigration, attacked corruption, and encouraged the critical reexamination of Soviet history. Gorbachev dissolved the Communist Party and granted the Baltic states independence. Following the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States in , he resigned as president. Since , Gorbachev has headed international organizations. The term designated the attempts to transform the stagnant, inefficient command economy of the Soviet Union into a decentralized, market-oriented economy.
Industrial managers and local government and party officials were granted greater autonomy, and open elections were introduced in an attempt to democratize the Communist Party organization. By , perestroika was declining and was soon eclipsed by the dissolution of the USSR. He wrote the first Russian national opera, A Life for the Tsar, as well as overtures, symphonies and orchestral suites.
It provided food for Jewish survivors all over Europe, it supplied clothing, books and school supplies for children. It supported cultural amenities and brought religious supplies for the Jewish communities. The Joint also operated DP camps, in which it organized retraining programs to help people learn trades that would enable them to earn a living, while its cultural and religious activities helped re- establish Jewish life. The Joint was also closely involved in helping Jews to emigrate from Europe and from Muslim countries. The Joint was expelled from East Central Europe for decades during the Cold War and it has only come back to many of these countries after the fall of communism.
Today the Joint provides social welfare programs for elderly Holocaust survivors and encourages Jewish renewal and communal development. Supported by Claims Conference and Joint Hesed helps for Jews in need to have a decent life despite hard economic conditions and encourages development of their self-identity. Hesed provides a number of services aimed at supporting the needs of all, and particularly elderly members of the society.
The major social services include: work in the center facilities information, advertisement of the center activities, foreign ties and free lease of medical equipment ; services at homes care and help at home, food products delivery, delivery of hot meals, minor repairs ; work in the community clubs, meals together, day-time polyclinic, medical and legal consultations ; service for volunteers training programs.
People have seen and sensed the rebirth of the Jewish traditions of humanism. Currently over eighty Hesed centers exist in the FSU countries. Their activities cover the Jewish population of over eight hundred settlements. Shlima Goldstein and her husband met me in the yard of their house. They live in a nice two-bedroom apartment on the second floor of a five-storied brick apartment building. Shlima introduced herself and said that she was more used to being addressed by her second name of Dora. She is a short, sweet, round-faced slender lady looking young for her age.
Her husband is a short, friendly and nice man. He asked us about our work and the objective of this interview with great interest. Their apartment is clean, bright and cozy. There was a smell of cookies spreading from the kitchen: Shlima is a wonderful baker, and she still spoils her husband making all kinds of cookies and cakes for him. Their pet, a shell parakeet, regularly interfered in our discussion.
My life started from a tragic event in our family. I was born the day after my father, Shloime Gersh, died from tuberculosis. My mother named me Shlima in his memory. Shortly after I was born, a young wealthy man visited my mother. He asked her to name me after his wife Dvoira, who had died a short time before.
He offered my mother some money, and she promised to give me the second name. The man insisted that I was called Dvoira every day and my mother unwillingly kept her word. My tragic appearance in this world had an impact on my childhood and girlhood. I know little about them, as it happens. My grandfather, Moishe Gersh, born in the s, was a hereditary shoemaker. They were both born in the main town of Bessarabia , Kishinev. Moishe and his family lived in a big two- storied house on Pavlovskaya Street in the center of the town.
I remember their house. My mother used to take me there on Sabbath. There were candles burning in a big room — it was always dark there as there were heavy velvet curtains on the windows. I enjoyed breathing in the sweet smell of the candles. My grandmother used to make delicious Jewish food on holidays: stuffed fish, chicken broth and stew, tsimes , pies and cookies.
I enjoyed eating the food, always being hungry. My grandfather had a shop on the first floor of his house where he worked with his sons who followed into his footsteps. Moishe was a very religious man, a Hasid . He had long payes and always had a head piece on: a kippah at home and a wide-brimmed hat to go out.
Moishe went to the nearby synagogue of shoemakers every day. My grandmother was a housewife. She had to take care of the house, their vegetable garden, poultry yard where they kept chicken and ducks in the back yard, so my grandmother had a great deal of things to take care of. She was also religious. She went to the synagogue on Sabbath and on Jewish holidays, of course.
They strictly observed Jewish traditions at home, followed the kashrut and celebrated Sabbath and all Jewish holidays. They raised their children according to the rules followed by all Jewish families at the time. The boys went to cheder and when they grew of appropriate age, they started assisting their father, helping him in the shop. The girls were involved in housework. There were five children in the family: two sons and three daughters. My father Shloime, the oldest in the family, was born in They were born two to three years one after the other. Uncle Gersh was a shoemaker, like my father and grandfather.
His wife Ida, a Jew, was a beauty. They got married in They had no children before the Great Patriotic War . Gersh was recruited to the Soviet army and fought at the front line. Ida stayed in the occupation. She and her sister, Tsylia, also a beauty, were raped by fascists. Ida was very ill for a long while, but she survived.
Gersh married Frida, a Jewish woman from Kishinev. They had three children. She became mentally ill and died in a psychiatric clinic a few years later. Her family name was Roitman. Her daughter, Sarah, was born in She and her daughter were the only ones in the family to evacuate. After the war Sima remarried and had a good life with her second husband. She died in Her daughter Sarah moved to Israel in the early s. I can hardly remember my younger aunts, but they had a tragic life.
Grandfather Moishe and his younger daughters decided against evacuation. My grandfather remembered the Germans from the time of World War I. Besides, he was sorry to leave his house and everything he had earned by working very hard. They stayed in Kishinev and were taken to the [Kishinev] ghetto . One fascist just killed her and my grandfather. My father finished cheder and worked with my grandfather and Gersh in the shop. Once he saw my mother, and he fell in love with her.
A few days later a matchmaker visited them and my parents got married. According to what my mother told me, my maternal grandfather, Ruvim Reznik, born in the early s, and my grandmother, Malka, were rather wealthy. My grandfather was a successful businessman. He was a sales agent who traveled to China, where he sold goods from Europe and purchased oriental goods: sweets, fabric, jewelry and souvenirs.
My grandfather was thinking of moving to China with his family. He built a house in China, took a picture of it and brought the photo to show it to my grandmother in Kishinev. Almost on the first day after his arrival, my grandfather fell on the street and died from infarction. My grandmother had to take care of their three children.
She was born to a wealthy family in Kishinev in She married my grandfather when she was young. They rented an apartment in a small one-storied house on Aziatskaya Street, but they were rather well off. When my grandfather died in , my grandmother had to go to work and she worked till the end of her days. She went to a bakery early in the morning to buy rolls and buns by wholesale prices to sell them on the streets. She picked any job she could: she cleaned and did the washing for wealthier people, and nursed elderly people. My grandmother was a kind person.
She had many Jewish and Moldovan acquaintances. My grandmother told me that during the Kishinev pogrom in , her Moldovan neighbors gave her and her two children shelter in their house. My grandfather was on one of his trips, as usual. Malka had three children: the sons, Srul and Isaac, and my mother Polia, born in Srul was much older than my mother. Srul died shortly after my grandfather died. Isaac was a sales agent like my grandfather. He was married. Isaac disappeared during the Great Patriotic War.
His wife and daughter managed to evacuate. My mother, Polia, graduated from a Jewish elementary school. She could read and write in Yiddish. My mother rarely saw her father, who always traveled. My grandmother, who was very religious, raised my mother to become a real Jewish girl respecting and observing Jewish traditions. We still keep old silver candle stands that belonged to my grandmother. She lit candles in them on Sabbath. Recently, I gave them to my daughter to keep the memory of our Jewish ancestors. At the time when my mother was a child Bessarabia belonged to Russia and my mother could speak Russian.
My mother was a beautiful girl. Her thick hair that she wore in plaits was particularly attractive. The wedding was traditional Jewish and took place in the most beautiful synagogue in town, with a chuppah, and a klezmer band, and the tables were covered with traditional Jewish food.
She and my father settled down in a small apartment on Alexeyevskaya Street. Nine months later, in , my older sister, Sarah [Alexandra], came into this world. When my father returned home, my mother was glad at first, but then, when he became bed-ridden, our family lived the hardest years of our life.
In , my brother, called Ruvim after my grandfather, was born. By that time my mother, my father and the children moved in with my widowed grandmother. On 16th February my father died. However, she had three kids and she had to provide for us. Only rarely did they allow my mother and us to go visit them. We were starving and my mother had to send all three of us to an orphanage. My brother was sent to an [Jewish] orphanage for boys and I went to an [Jewish] orphanage for girls in Kishinev. The director of my orphanage was Tsylia Mikhailovna and Pograbinskaya was a nurse.
There was also a janitor in the orphanage. His wife was a cleaner. The two of them were Moldovan. The orphanage was established in a two-storied house. There were two bedrooms on the first floor, one for older girls and one for small kids. There was a big dining and living room on the first floor where we had meals, played and where older girls did their homework. We wore black uniform robes with white collars and had them washed once a week. We also had a shower once a week in the orphanage. Once a month we went to a public bath.
In the bath our clothes were treated to protect them from lice while we were taking a bath. Once, I stayed in the bath until late and was late for dinner.
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We mainly had cooked cereals like porridge, pearl barley, millet, and at lunch we had thin soup with a slice of bread, but with no butter or oil, this was low calorie food, and we got little of it, we rarely had meat or fish — only on holidays. I remember I always dreamt of having as much food as I wanted, and the other girls felt the same.
We had meals at set hours and even had drinks at the same time. We lined up to take a sip from one mug. We used to cling to the cup to drink water, but then they grabbed it from you to give it to another girl. I learned to dodge them. We had a slice of bread and baked apple slices that tasted like a delicacy to us.
Apples were picked in the garden which belonged to the orphanage. There was a high fence around it and we could only see the top branches of the old trees. When we began to study religion, I learned about hell and paradise. I imagined this garden was paradise and I wanted to go there so much. We observed Jewish traditions in the orphanage. On Friday we went to the synagogue.
The older girls stood at the entrance with big mugs where parishioners dropped money for the orphanage and we stood beside them. In the evening the older girls lit candles in the orphanage and we celebrated Sabbath. We also celebrated Jewish holidays in the orphanage. On Chanukkah we had potato pancakes, doughnuts with jam and were given little gifts. If only they had given us more pancakes and doughnuts — I could never have enough food.
My family background
On Purim we had costumes made for us: paper collars and masks, and we sang merry songs about Purim, had fun playing with rattles and ate hamantashen. My favorite holiday was Pesach. A few days before the holiday the janitor and his wife whitewashed the building, changed the curtains and tablecloths and we knew the holiday was forthcoming.
We sat at the festive table and waited for the patroness of our orphanage, Helena Babich, and her husband. He was a handsome man: tall, smart, and neatly dressed. They always came in for the first seder to read the Haggadah and prayers and celebrate with us. January 7, Translation from Russian into English: January 7, The Short Story about the Bottom The religious protagonist in a pit sits.
Together with the wife. It's damp, cold, heavy. He have decided to distract. He have turned on the laptop. Have gone out in Internet. Browse: news. The fight. The incident. The razborka. The Molotov cocktail … "Is what cocktail, the wife? To which in long dresses come? She jokes in reply: "In clothes black …". The protagonist has remembered: "At the bottom". He have sighed. He have gained strength, He have begun to read. The question was left without answer. January 19, After a unpleasant story with Alexander Radishchev Catherine II has allocated money from the state budget for support of literary creativity.
Have calculated the estimate. People - all the respected. At the nearby tables are sit the former press secretary of one of the organisation structures in the general's rank with the book about resonant, all the known, loud crimes and the innovative journalist with the book "All Mysteries of the St. Petersburg Bathhouse". The ex-press secretary looked around, sometimes darting glances at the neighbor. The neighbor has focused on the book, somehow didn't watch absolutely at the ex-press secretary.
The action was short. All began to stand up. Willy-nilly the journalist has darted a glance at the ex-press secretary, has nodded to him and has muttered something. The journalist has gone to an exit. Maupassant speaking. In the past, men used to write about women.
Today, now, versa, women are writing about men. Your congratulations? You - as the old yacht seaman - are wishing a progress in a yachting and in a fishing? Thank you! February 16, February 24, Translation from Russian into English: February 24, The Monologue about Knowledge Yury Trifonov was finishing the story "Time and Place": "In the fall of my daughter Katya did not pass the second year in a row exams for admission to the university. She got sick with a severe nervous disease.
And she was put in the first city hospital, in the psychosomatic department. But now have found the nanny, the child lived in the summer in Desna, Katya exhausted herself with memorization and vigils. I haven't seen people, weakened himself to such an extent. I couldn't help, the mathematics wasn't necessary to her, and in other objects I have lagged behind. But, seeing as she is engaged, I was for some reason sure: such infernal efforts can't go to waste!
And here she has made a call me to institute and by a false, cheerful voice has told I shouldn't worry, - she hasn't gained half a point, has again failed. I felt cold in fear and shouted: "What are you going to do now? A few people? And nothing can be made. It is the truth? If everything is defined? Memory made the tooltip: "Whether the writer knows that such human heart? December" He has opened the encyclopedia: "August 28, - March 28, aged 55 " February 25, Translation from Russian into English: February 25, Alexander Pushkin has decided to become a journalist.
As soon as he has felt this desire, he has found himself of Easter Island. Pushkin didn't lose courage. He has gone to walk on the island, reciting aloud works by Lermontov. Pushkin has looked around, has listened. The answer wasn't. He has decided to switch to Lermontovsky prose. I have met the officer of the the Black Sea Cossacks' Host today, he is familiar to me - was last year in the squad, as I have told him where we have stopped, and he to me: "Here, brother, is dirty place, the people bad!.
It seemed to Pushkin that on him from where from above look with irony and superiority. Perhaps to be, his hopes are hidden in the sea? The southern night has as if by magic fallen up the earth. In the come darkness Pushkin suddenly has realized that he is in Russia again. Pushkin has felt interest in Peter I's identity and has decided to focus on writing of the poem "Poltava".
March 02, Translation from Russian into English: March 02, The Fairy Tale, devoted March 8, about Lermontov After departure from the small town of Taman my soul became the restless. Near a copper cannons the arms servants sleep. Barely a wicks smoke; In pairs the chain costs in the distance; Bayonets burn under the sun of the South. In battles I have been seriously wounded, captured by the opponents. I fled from captivity with got at my disposal documents of a Cossack officer. And again I have appeared in the small town of Taman.
My wound justified my rest in Taman. I have found the lodge on the seashore where I have for the first time got acquainted with my mermaid. My days have been devoted to the recovery of my strength and my health. I swam more and more, further and further. The familiar fisherman has a little taught me to steer the sailing vessel.
Every morning I did a little journey by horse. Somehow in the sea we together with the fisherman have met the foreign ship. It has appeared, the captain spoke French. We have drunk a little French wine in his cabin. I have read several poems and have given as keepsake to the captain a beautiful silver military flask. He has in reply presented me several books in foreign languages. I had the some knowledge since the childhood. Books have given me the chance to refresh the childish knowledge. So the days and has been going.
Horseback riding, swimming in the sea, sailing, learning foreign languages. After some time, I was already able to the independently sailing. Somehow, being in the Crimea, I went along the coast. In one place the flow of rainwater has exposed the stone, the edge of which was trimmed in the shape of a semicircle. Hoping to find something interesting, I have a little cleaned the earth with a knife. Hope did not deceive me. Densely to each other vessels of the most various form, from five to eleven centimeters high, stood and lay. There were also a crooked knife, fragments of the sword, the twisted bronze decoration and a clay figure of the goddess with two flutes, the gold coins and jewelry.
I have transported all found objects toward the my little house. Thus began my fascination with archaeology. The little house, I lived in, was on the edge of a cliff. And I often admired the sea. My heart was beating faster. The sail was approaching, but at some point the sail has disappeared. I rushed to the beach. It seemed to me that among the waves I see a human. I rushed into the raging sea and swam. The drowning human was already unconscious, and his body at times was hidden under the surface of the water.
It was that eighteen-year-old girl with whom I have got acquainted in Taman earlier. To see her I came back to the Taman. I have pulled out her body on the coast and have made artificial respiration. She has begun to breathe. Her surprise knew no bounds. I explained that I had returned to Taman due to the military wound and that my health requested a long rest.
Next day we have found fragments of the sailing vessel which has sunk during a storm on which she floated, and bodies of his drowned passengers. Among the drowned persons there was also her comrade. Since then, during horseback riding, swimming in the sea, sailing, learning foreign languages, I was not alone. With me was my songbird. Soon we were married. Once, swimming in one of the bays, I decided to dive to the bottom.
The water was clear. I found the wreckage of the sunken ship. Among fragments something has sparkled! It turned out that the ship was carrying several boxes of gold coins. I was more and more interested in archeology. We moved to Europe. During this period in Paris real estate prices fell, and I have bought several houses at once.
In one of the houses we settled down with my Undine. Here was my Parisian library. Other houses gave the income necessary for my archaeological excavations. I added to the knowledge gained at the Moscow University - listened to several cycles of lectures at the Paris and Neapolitan universities.
I was drawn to Greece, and in this country we spent the most part of time with my beauty woman. I drew attention to the low prices of land lots in Athens. Gradually acquired several plots. Soon the prices rose, I sold the plots profitably, and on the money I built our house in the Greek capital. The house was decorated with frescoes on modern and archaeological themes. On one of the frescoes depicts a young girl in a striped dress with loose braids - a real mermaid. I have published several books with my travel diaries and descriptions of my archaeological excavations.
On the basis of several books to me degree of the doctor of philosophy has been awarded. Our archaeological studies were quite successful. We found huge gold treasures and opened several of the ancient palaces. My Undine and I made presentations at a joint meeting of several archaeological societies in one of the European capitals. The treasures we found are housed in European museums. We made a trip around the world. We visited Scotland, the places where my ancestors lived. At some point, my earthly journey was over. It happened almost-that on the site of the antique city, where I came as a tourist That's what happened after the end of the earthly path.
I met Louis Antoine de Bougainville. Among the roses he watched the flight of the snowflakes. We greeted each other. And he, the man of freedom, asks for a storm, As if in the storms there is a rest! Since then I sometimes walks with him for meetings of the super-catamarans. My hope is - to meet my undine in the following life.
Than to complete my story? Probably, those the words, what I have begun with. Taman - the finest the small town from all seaside cities of Russia. I there slightly haven't died from hunger. Moreover in additives I was wanted to be drowned. But there I have found the happiness. March 5, Translation from Russian into English: March 6, Confucius was reading the book by the one of the ancient wise men. Simultaneously they heard the ringing signals of their mobile telephones and went toward verandah to converse at a fresh air. They put their books on the table near the entrance to verandah.
They looked through the books. March 9, Would you like to sit down? Would you like a glass of orange juice? We are reading about your words to the Emperor Nicholas I. The words, wich were told just before end of your terrestrial way: "Tell the Emperor, I regret losing my life. Because I can't express to him my gratitude. I would be totally of his! The group of excursionists entered the hall where the portraits were arranged. Among others there was a self-portrait of Lermontov.
The guide told: - Pushkin's death has terribly struck Lermontov. Since then, all who cherish the Russian word, learned the name of Lermontov. The charm and musicality of versification have been recognized by experts as the phenomenon remarkable. Lermontov, of course, didn't argue with our old woman. The grandmother has noticed it, and, without a wishing to sadden the Mischa, didn't tell a word to him about secular rumors any more. And these rumors have influenced on Lermontov so strongly that he has got sick even. The grandmother was frightened.
The friend of all St. Petersburg, the kindest Nikolay Fedorovich Arendt has arrived. He, without prescribing any medicine, has quite calmed our whimsical patient with the conversation. Arendt told him all sad epic of those two with a half days from January 27 to January 29, during which Pushkin, wounded, felt a great pain. Our friend has even more loved the idol after this frank message ofNikolay Fedorovich, the message, which has poured out from the kind soul not able to constrain the words.
Lermontov was under this impression when ours the relative N. Lermontov didn't want to hear it. He, grasping a sheet of paper, something quickly on it scrabbled by a pencil, breaking pencils one after another and and having damaged so with a half-dozen. The anger of him didn't know limits. He has angrily looked at S. And he left quickly, having told only: "But he just mad".
A quarter of hour later, Lermontov who has damaged so many pencils in time when here was S. Petersburg read and knew "addition" to Lermontov's verses on the death of Pushkin. The heat burning in these verses was so infectious. Hardly sometime in Russia verses made such enormous and universal impression. I have told the chief of staff of the Corps of Gendarmes, general Dubelt: "The best not to pay any attention to similar thoughtless tricks: and their glory will fade soon.
Burnashev continued, — even the grand duke Michael Pavlovich read and have only told laughing: "Eh, as he accelerated! Who will think that he doesn't belong to the highest noble childbirth? In a word, these verses, rewritten and learned by all everywhere, in the highest spheres were considered as childish flash, and in public, though isn't loud, but admitted for the ingenious literary work. The sovereign knew nothing about them, because the count von Benckendorff didn't attach significance to those verses.
On January 29, , O. Pushkin has died. On February 3, , O. On February 6, , O. Pushkin's body has been buried. Lermontov has written "The first part" of the well-known poem on January 28, , O. Burnashev kept logic, - these days the reception from the count F. Suddenly the famous St. At this time Lermontov was under the house arrest.
In general, the interesting impression arises: there is no clarity with exact dating of many events. The "official" version looks as follows: On February 7, Lermontov has written final 16 verses "And you, haughty descendants On February 18, Lermontov has been arrested and placed in one of rooms of the top floor of General staff. However to archival documents P. Shchegolev had access. January Pushkin is mortally wounded on a duel with d'Anthes. Lermontov writes the poem about the Pushkin's death "The death of the poet".
Glinka's the copy of the poem by Lermontov on the death of Pushkin. February Rayevsky's testimony on the case of "the inadmissible verses written by a cornet hussar Lermontov". Lermontov's explanation on the same matter. Quite natural question: why Pavel E. Shchegolev, who had access to archives, has evaded from the indication of exact dates?
Intense there was time! Here and Pushkin, here and Lermontov … And in general, how not to be involved in all these events?.. However, dates are important, but dates — not the main thing … - Many were that opinion that it is work of the "leprosy of society". She, dissatisfied with my the noncommittal on a reception, early in the morning has sent the copy to the highest name to the Winter Palace, - the count von Benckendorff has specified from a portrait. He has remembered the grandmother There was a heavy minute, but has passed, — Lermontov has spoken from a self-portrait.
Burnashev has added. If something like that, I will reach him. But in any case, I will not must see you again in this not your form". My brother lived in Paris, but received means from estates from Russia. The visits to Russia - I did them. The Emperor has charged to me to accompany Pushkin's body to the place of a funeral, — A. Turgenev has remembered from a portrait. This burdensome mourning way … I on February 2 and 12, , O. The young man, the orphan who was brought up by the grandmother, the person with literary abilities, has written verses outstanding.
He "has almost recovered" What's further? The group of visitors has passed into the following hall. March 13, Translation from Russian into English: March 14, - March 15, The writer was to be held the nightly reading of his works on the radio station. Who exactly does throw?! And onto above whose exactly the ventilators?! The writer has decided to call by phone. But it was necessary to take out a scarf and to close a nose. They are turning! March 25, Translation from Russian into English: March 25, The ordinary reader from the province writes you. Yesterday I read Leo Tolstoy's article "Senseless aspirations".
And here that has thought. In traditions of the world literature to fulfill an art reconsideration of the current events. Look how many events around us! And that occurs. And this. And the fifth and tenth. And the hundred thirty fifth. As you are the obvious titan of a cultural and literary thought uplifted, one may say, on Olympe, I ask you: write about the current events. Thanks in advance. The message about the arrived letter has rushed along corridors, offices and utility rooms of the Cultural Panel. Careful silence has hung in mid-air. The chairman of the Cultural Panel has arrived in the middle of the day to office and has found at himself on a table the listing of the e-mail.
He has stayed in the workplace half an hour and has left. The secretary has found on the chairman's table the printed-out e-mail without any marks. Soon along the Cultural Panel the news has flown. To the Chairman called doctors. He is seriously sick. Rest and long-term treatment in good Western European resorts is required.
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I inform you that the grant given by you of hundred million bitcoins is effectively used. You understand. I, according to the plan of the personal creative activity, have written the considerable literary work "The Ten Years before the instruction". However, in the course of work the expediency of the correcting and a theme, and the creative plan was opened. The subject of the mentioned literary work has to taking into account modern realities sound otherwise: "The Hundred years before the instruction".
The expediency of such formulation is confirmed by service records of Advisory councils NN 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 copies of service records are attached. I pay your attention that ten thousand persons with academic degrees and one thousand persons who are awarded the order the Honourable Centurion are a part of the called Advisory councils.
Taking into account stated I ask you to consider and to positively resolve an issue of allocation of an additional grant in the sum of one billion bitcoins on preparation of the literary work "The Hundred years before the instruction" the updated name, the updated creative plan and also on holding the additional civilization actions. I consider it expedient to note effective use of some part of earlier allocated grant on holding additional civilization actions. In particular, to the holding a seven-day Seaside festival of creativity with the most wide range of creative projects.
I will allow to cite your words told by you in the finishing day of a festival: "Keep it Up! Taking into account stated I assure you about orientation on cultural cooperation the approximate percent of time spent for such cooperation remains without changes. I ask to consider urgently and to positively resolve an issue of allocation of a grant in the sum of one billion bitcoins.
The Minister of a civilization development has read the arrived address and has written the resolution: "To the Chairman of the Cultural Panel. To consider a question of allocation of a grant in the sum of 1 billion bitcoins. To prepare the draft decision on board of the ministry. To the chief of financial management. To reserve 1 billion bitcoins for support measures.
To the Head of the Secretariat. To inform members of board of the letter from the Cultural Panel and of the resolutions. The Seaside festival of creativity was remembered up. It was pleasant to start a way, having a good new full bag. Farewell vanity hasn't allowed to open her before the arrival. The mood has improved. His face was lit with a blissful smile. March 27, Translation from Russian into English: March 27, The first action has ended. There were both applause, and admiration. An orchestra played In an entr'acte.
There was something festive in mood of the public crowding in buffet, discussing acting. The performance approached the top. In a conversation with Rusakov asking why he, Ivanushka, isn't cheerful Borodkin answers that to him it became for some reason sad. These expressive words became a revelation for public and have made the stunning impression on the audience. The performance came to an end. Prepare the draft of the program. Submit the application for financing.
The curtain has fallen. An enthusiastic shouts, applause. The invitations of the author to scene. At last an applause has calmed down. The public has gone to an exit. Pushkin has gone to Boldino, Shakespeare — to London. Ostrovsky has gone home to write the drama "The Storm". March 29, Translation from Russian into English: March 30, This is Lloyd George. There has passed the year anniversary of the Genoa Conference. I have decided to call you now. About the Genoa Conference I reflected after the translation of your statement on the peace and at preparation of April theses by me.
If to consider with editing and literary processing — that for several days. We with pleasure read about dear Sherlock Holmes. But not only about him. In the novel by Vladimir Bogomolov "In August of the forty fourth …" "The Moment of Truth" one of the staff of counterintelligence reflects as the situation "has turned over". If in usual conditions the staff of criminal investigation department equipped with knowledge, the equipment, data from archives conducts search of criminals whom criminals senior "companions" trained, then in a situation of military operations the counterspies equipped with the head, legs and an individual weapon conducted search in enormous territories of the agents trained and equipped with the advanced state.
Documentary novel. I will transfer the book sent by you about Sherlock Holmes to writers. Perhaps, they will accept as an example. It was interesting to hear your opinion. Remembering her, I have organized fast preparation and adoption of the Decree about library science. I hope, another anniversary of the Genoa Conference will give a reason for our another conversation.
March 30, Something went "not so".